Charging speed mainly depends on two factors: the car battery’s capacity and the type of charging system used.
Electric car batteries are usually classified according to their energy storage capacity, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). The most common electric cars have batteries with capacities between 40 kWh and 100 kWh, although there are models with higher capacities.
Electric vehicle charging systems are typically classified into four modes:
• Mode 1 – AC charging without PWM
Charging mode 1 is not suitable for cars but only for motorbikes, e-bikes and scooters. It involves using a standard household charger with an electrical outlet, without charging management and control systems. This method requires a simple connection between the vehicle and the electrical socket via a charging cable. It is comparable to charging a mobile phone and achieves a maximum charging power of approximately 2 kW.
•Mode 2 – Domestic/industrial AC charging
Mode 2 charging of electric cars involves using a charger with a charging cable controlled by a device placed between the vehicle and the mains. This cable incorporates a charging management and control system and safety and protection elements against overloading or power leakage. The charger is connected to a domestic or industrial electrical outlet (single-phase or three-phase up to a maximum of 22 kW), thus offering more charging power than mode 1.
•Mode 3- Public AC charging
Mode 3 of electric car charging involves the installation of a wall-mounted device (wallbox
) or other fixed infrastructure (charging post) running on AC power. The connection is made directly to the power grid, providing higher power than previous methods. It should be noted that Mode 3 charging can also be done on the move via the E-GAP Delivery Fast service.
• Mode 4 – DC Charging
Mode 4 charging of electric cars is characterised using high-power fast direct current (DC) chargers. Usually, these are installed at public charging stations or high-power charging points
along motorways. They offer very high DC charging power, allowing the electric car to be recharged in just a few minutes. It should be noted that Mode 4 charging can also be done on the move via the E-GAP Delivery Fast service.